A complete list of Excel functions, and short videos show how to use popular Excel functions.
Interactive Excel Functions List
These tutorials show how to use some of the most popular Excel functions.
Click to start the Functions video playlist. Or, at the bottom left of the video, click "Playlist", and click on a video thumbnail to start that video.
Below is an interactive list of all the Excel functions.
Function 
Category 
Version Added 
Description 

ABS 
Math Trig 

Returns the absolute value of a number 
ACCRINT 
Financial 

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest 
ACCRINTM 
Financial 

Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity 
ACOS 
Math Trig 

Returns the arccosine of a number 
ACOSH 
Math Trig 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number 
ACOT 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the arccotangent of a number 
ACOTH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number 
Lookup Ref 

Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet 

Math Trig 
2010 
Returns an aggregate in a list or database 

AMORDEGRC 
Financial 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient 
AMORLINC 
Financial 

Returns the depreciation for each accounting period 
Logical 

Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE 

ARABIC 
Math Trig 
2013 
Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number 
Lookup Ref 

Returns the number of areas in a reference 

ASC 
Text 

Changes fullwidth (doublebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to halfwidth (singlebyte) characters 
ASIN 
Math Trig 

Returns the arcsine of a number 
ASINH 
Math Trig 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number 
ATAN 
Math Trig 

Returns the arctangent of a number 
ATAN2 
Math Trig 

Returns the arctangent from x and ycoordinates 
ATANH 
Math Trig 

Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number 
AVEDEV 
Statistical 

Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean 
Statistical 

Returns the average of its arguments 

Statistical 

Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 

Statistical 
2007 
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria 

Statistical 
2007 
Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. 

BAHTTEXT 
Text 

Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format 
BASE 
Math Trig 
2013 
Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) 
BESSELI 
Eng 

Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) 
BESSELJ 
Eng 

Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) 
BESSELK 
Eng 

Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) 
BESSELY 
Eng 

Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) 
BETA.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETA.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 
BETADIST 
Statistical 

Returns the beta cumulative distribution function 
BETAINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution 
BIN2DEC 
Eng 

Converts a binary number to decimal 
BIN2HEX 
Eng 

Converts a binary number to hexadecimal 
BIN2OCT 
Eng 

Converts a binary number to octal 
BINOM.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 
BINOM.DIST.RANGE 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution 
BINOM.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 
BINOMDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability 
BITAND 
Eng 
2013 
Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers 
BITLSHIFT 
Eng 
2013 
Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits 
BITOR 
Eng 
2013 
Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers 
BITRSHIFT 
Eng 
2013 
Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits 
BITXOR 
Eng 
2013 
Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers 
CALL 
Addin and Automation 

Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource 
Math Trig 

Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 

CEILING.MATH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
CEILING.PRECISE 
Math Trig 
2010 
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. 
Info 

Returns Info about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell 

Text 

Returns the character specified by the code number 

CHIDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHIINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.DIST 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function 
CHISQ.DIST.RT 
Statistical 

Returns the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.INV 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the cumulative beta probability density function 
CHISQ.INV.RT 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the onetailed probability of the chisquared distribution 
CHISQ.TEST 
Statistical 

Returns the test for independence 
CHITEST 
Statistical 

Returns the test for independence 
Lookup Ref 

Chooses a value from a list of values 

Text 

Removes all nonprintable characters from text 

Text 

Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string 

COLUMN 
Lookup Ref 

Returns the column number of a reference 
Lookup Ref 

Returns the number of columns in a reference 

COMBIN 
Math Trig 

Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects 
COMBINA 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items 
COMPLEX 
Eng 

Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number 
CONCAT  Text  2019  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. 
CONCATENATE 
Text 

Joins several text items into one text item 
CONFIDENCE 
Statistical 

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 
CONFIDENCE.NORM 
Statistical 

Returns the confidence interval for a population mean 
CONFIDENCE.T 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution 
Eng 

Converts a number from one measurement system to another 

CORREL 
Statistical 

Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets 
COS 
Math Trig 

Returns the cosine of a number 
COSH 
Math Trig 

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
COT 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number 
COTH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the cotangent of an angle 
Statistical 

Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments 

Statistical 

Counts how many values are in the list of arguments 

Statistical 

Counts the number of blank cells within a range 

Statistical 

Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria 

Statistical 
2007 
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria 

COUPDAYBS 
Financial 

Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date 
COUPDAYS 
Financial 

Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date 
COUPDAYSNC 
Financial 

Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date 
COUPNCD 
Financial 

Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date 
COUPNUM 
Financial 

Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date 
COUPPCD 
Financial 

Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date 
COVAR 
Statistical 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 
COVARIANCE.P 
Statistical 

Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations 
COVARIANCE.S 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets 
CRITBINOM 
Statistical 

Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value 
CSC 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the cosecant of an angle 
CSCH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle 
CUBEKPIMEMBER 
Cube 
2007 
Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance. 
CUBEMEMBER 
Cube 
2007 
Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. 
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY 
Cube 
2007 
Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. 
CUBERANKEDMEMBER 
Cube 
2007 
Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students. 
CUBESET 
Cube 
2007 
Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. 
CUBESETCOUNT 
Cube 
2007 
Returns the number of items in a set. 
CUBEVALUE 
Cube 
2007 
Returns an aggregated value from a cube. 
CUMIPMT 
Financial 

Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods 
CUMPRINC 
Financial 

Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of a particular date 

Date and time 

Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number 

DAVERAGE 
Database 

Returns the average of selected database entries 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a day of the month 

DAYS 
Date and time 
2013 
Returns the number of days between two dates 
DAYS360 
Date and time 

Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year 
DB 
Financial 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixeddeclining balance method 
DCOUNT 
Database 

Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database 
DCOUNTA 
Database 

Counts nonblank cells in a database 
DDB 
Financial 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the doubledeclining balance method or some other method that you specify 
DEC2BIN 
Eng 

Converts a decimal number to binary 
DEC2HEX 
Eng 

Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal 
DEC2OCT 
Eng 

Converts a decimal number to octal 
DECIMAL 
Math Trig 
2013 
Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number 
DEGREES 
Math Trig 

Converts radians to degrees 
DELTA 
Eng 

Tests whether two values are equal 
DEVSQ 
Statistical 

Returns the sum of squares of deviations 
DGET 
Database 

Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria 
DISC 
Financial 

Returns the discount rate for a security 
DMAX 
Database 

Returns the maximum value from selected database entries 
DMIN 
Database 

Returns the minimum value from selected database entries 
DOLLAR 
Text 

Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format 
DOLLARDE 
Financial 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number 
DOLLARFR 
Financial 

Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction 
DPRODUCT 
Database 

Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database 
DSTDEV 
Database 

Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries 
DSTDEVP 
Database 

Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries 
Database 

Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria 

DURATION 
Financial 

Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments 
DVAR 
Database 

Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries 
DVARP 
Database 

Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries 
Dynamic Arrays  Dynamic Arrays  Create dynamic lists to use for dependent data validation, with UNIQUE, SORT, FILTER  
EDATE 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date 
EFFECT 
Financial 

Returns the effective annual interest rate 
ENCODEURL 
Web 
2013 
Returns a URLencoded string 
EOMONTH 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months 
ERF 
Eng 

Returns the error function 
ERF.PRECISE 
Eng 
2010 
Returns the error function 
ERFC 
Eng 

Returns the complementary error function 
ERFC.PRECISE 
Eng 
2010 
Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity 
Info 

Returns a number corresponding to an error type 

EUROCONVERT 
Addin and Automation 

Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). 
EVEN 
Math Trig 

Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer 
Text 

Checks to see if two text values are identical 

EXP 
Math Trig 

Returns e raised to the power of a given number 
EXPON.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the exponential distribution 
EXPONDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the exponential distribution 
F.DIST 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the F probability distribution 
F.DIST.RT 
Statistical 

Returns the F probability distribution 
F.INV 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 
F.INV.RT 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 
F.TEST 
Statistical 

Returns the result of an Ftest 
FACT 
Math Trig 

Returns the factorial of a number 
FACTDOUBLE 
Math Trig 

Returns the double factorial of a number 
FALSE 
Logical 

Returns the logical value FALSE 
FDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the F probability distribution 
FILTER  Lookup Ref  O365  Filters a range of data based on criteria you define 
FILTERXML 
Web 
2013 
Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath 
Text 

Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) 

FINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution 
FISHER 
Statistical 

Returns the Fisher transformation 
FISHERINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation 
Text 

Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals 

Math Trig 

Rounds a number down, toward zero 

FLOOR.MATH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
FLOOR. PRECISE 
Math Trig 
2010 
Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. 
FORECAST 
Statistical 

Returns a value along a linear trend 
FORECAST. ETS  Stat  2016  Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm 
FORECAST. ETS. CONFINT  Stat  2016  Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date 
FORECAST. ETS. SEASONALITY  Stat  2016  Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series 
FORECAST. ETS. STAT  Stat  2016  Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting 
FORECAST. LINEAR  Stat  2016  Returns a future value based on existing values 
IFS  Logical  2019  Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition. 
Lookup Ref 
2013 
Returns the formula at the given reference as text 

FREQUENCY 
Statistical 

Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array 
FTEST 
Statistical 

Returns the result of an Ftest 
FV 
Financial 

Returns the future value of an investment 
FVSCHEDULE 
Financial 

Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates 
GAMMA 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns the Gamma function value 
GAMMA.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMA.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 
GAMMADIST 
Statistical 

Returns the gamma distribution 
GAMMAINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution 
GAMMALN 
Statistical 

Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x) 
GAMMALN. PRECISE 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x) 
GAUSS 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution 
Math Trig 

Returns the greatest common divisor 

GEOMEAN 
Statistical 

Returns the geometric mean 
GESTEP 
Eng 

Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value 
Addin and Automation 

Returns data stored in a PivotTable report 

GROWTH 
Statistical 

Returns values along an exponential trend 
HARMEAN 
Statistical 

Returns the harmonic mean 
HEX2BIN 
Eng 

Converts a hexadecimal number to binary 
HEX2DEC 
Eng 

Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal 
HEX2OCT 
Eng 

Converts a hexadecimal number to octal 
Lookup Ref 

Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell 

HOUR 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to an hour 
Lookup Ref 

Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet 

HYPGEOM.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
HYPGEOMDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the hypergeometric distribution 
Logical 

Specifies a logical test to perform 

Logical 
2007 
Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula 

IFNA 
Logical 
2013 
Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression 
IMABS 
Eng 

Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number 
IMAGINARY 
Eng 

Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number 
IMARGUMENT 
Eng 

Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians 
IMCONJUGATE 
Eng 

Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number 
IMCOS 
Eng 

Returns the cosine of a complex number 
IMCOSH 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number 
IMCOT 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the cotangent of a complex number 
IMCSC 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the cosecant of a complex number 
IMCSCH 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number 
IMDIV 
Eng 

Returns the quotient of two complex numbers 
IMEXP 
Eng 

Returns the exponential of a complex number 
IMLN 
Eng 

Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG10 
Eng 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a complex number 
IMLOG2 
Eng 

Returns the base2 logarithm of a complex number 
IMPOWER 
Eng 

Returns a complex number raised to an integer power 
IMPRODUCT 
Eng 

Returns the product of complex numbers 
IMREAL 
Eng 

Returns the real coefficient of a complex number 
IMSEC 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the secant of a complex number 
IMSECH 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number 
IMSIN 
Eng 

Returns the sine of a complex number 
IMSINH 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number 
IMSQRT 
Eng 

Returns the square root of a complex number 
IMSUB 
Eng 

Returns the difference between two complex numbers 
IMSUM 
Eng 

Returns the sum of complex numbers 
IMTAN 
Eng 
2013 
Returns the tangent of a complex number 
Lookup Ref 

Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array 

Lookup Ref 

Returns a reference indicated by a text value 

Info 

Returns Info about the current operating environment 

Math Trig 

Rounds a number down to the nearest integer 

INTERCEPT 
Statistical 

Returns the intercept of the linear regression line 
INTRATE 
Financial 

Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security 
Financial 

Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period 

IRR 
Financial 

Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows 
Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is blank 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is any error value 

ISEVEN 
Info 

Returns TRUE if the number is even 
Info 
2013 
Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is not text 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is a number 

ISO.CEILING 
Math Trig 
2010 
Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance 
ISODD 
Info 

Returns TRUE if the number is odd 
ISOWEEKNUM 
Date and time 
2013 
Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date 
ISPMT 
Financial 

Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment 
Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is a reference 

Info 

Returns TRUE if the value is text 

JIS 
Text 

Changes halfwidth (singlebyte) English letters or katakana within a character string to fullwidth (doublebyte) characters 
KURT 
Statistical 

Returns the kurtosis of a data set 
Statistical 

Returns the kth largest value in a data set 

LCM 
Math Trig 

Returns the least common multiple 
Text 

Returns the leftmost characters from a text value 

Text 

Returns the number of characters in a text string 

LINEST 
Statistical 

Returns the parameters of a linear trend 
LN 
Math Trig 

Returns the natural logarithm of a number 
LOG 
Math Trig 

Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base 
LOG10 
Math Trig 

Returns the base10 logarithm of a number 
LOGEST 
Statistical 

Returns the parameters of an exponential trend 
LOGINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution 
LOGNORM.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
LOGNORM.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution 
LOGNORMDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution 
Lookup Ref 

Looks up values in a vector or array 

LOWER 
Text 

Converts text to lowercase 
Lookup Ref 

Looks up values in a reference or array 

Statistical 

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments 

MAXA 
Statistical 

Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MAXIFS  Stat  2019  Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria 
MDETERM 
Math Trig 

Returns the matrix determinant of an array 
MDURATION 
Financial 

Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 
Statistical 

Returns the median of the given numbers 

Text 

Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify 

Statistical 

Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments 

MINA 
Statistical 

Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values 
MINIFS  Stat  2019  Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a minute 

MINVERSE 
Math Trig 

Returns the matrix inverse of an array 
MIRR 
Financial 

Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates 
MMULT 
Math Trig 

Returns the matrix product of two arrays 
Math Trig 

Returns the remainder from division 

MODE 
Statistical 

Returns the most common value in a data set 
MODE.MULT 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data 
MODE.SNGL 
Statistical 

Returns the most common value in a data set 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a month 

Math Trig 

Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple 

MULTINOMIAL 
Math Trig 

Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers 
MUNIT 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension 
Info 

Returns a value converted to a number 

Info 

Returns the error value #N/A 

NEGBINOM.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NEGBINOMDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the negative binomial distribution 
NETWORKDAYS 
Date and time 

Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates 
NETWORKDAYS.INTL 
Date and time 
2010 
Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days 
NOMINAL 
Financial 

Returns the annual nominal interest rate 
NORM.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the normal cumulative distribution 
NORM.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 
NORM.S.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORM.S.INV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORMDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NORMSINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution 
NOT 
Logical 

Reverses the logic of its argument 
NOW 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of the current date and time 
NPER 
Financial 

Returns the number of periods for an investment 
NPV 
Financial 

Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate 
NUMBERVALUE 
Text 
2013 
Converts text to number in a localeindependent manner 
OCT2BIN 
Eng 

Converts an octal number to binary 
OCT2DEC 
Eng 

Converts an octal number to decimal 
OCT2HEX 
Eng 

Converts an octal number to hexadecimal 
ODD 
Math Trig 

Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer 
ODDFPRICE 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period 
ODDFYIELD 
Financial 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period 
ODDLPRICE 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period 
ODDLYIELD 
Financial 

Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period 
Lookup Ref 

Returns a reference offset from a given reference 

OR 
Logical 

Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE 
PDURATION 
Financial 
2013 
Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value 
PEARSON 
Statistical 

Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
PERCENTILE 
Statistical 

Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 
PERCENTILE.EXC 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive 
PERCENTILE.INC 
Statistical 

Returns the kth percentile of values in a range 
PERCENTRANK 
Statistical 

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERCENTRANK.EXC 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set 
PERCENTRANK.INC 
Statistical 

Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set 
PERMUT 
Statistical 

Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects 
PERMUTATIONA 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects 
PHI 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution 
PHONETIC 
Text 

Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string 
PI 
Math Trig 

Returns the value of pi 
Financial 

Returns the periodic payment for an annuity 

POISSON 
Statistical 

Returns the Poisson distribution 
POISSON.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the Poisson distribution 
POWER 
Math Trig 

Returns the result of a number raised to a power 
PPMT 
Financial 

Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period 
PRICE 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest 
PRICEDISC 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security 
PRICEMAT 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity 
PROB 
Statistical 

Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits 
PRODUCT 
Math Trig 

Multiplies its arguments 
PROPER 
Text 

Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value 
PV 
Financial 

Returns the present value of an investment 
QUARTILE 
Statistical 

Returns the quartile of a data set 
QUARTILE.EXC 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive 
QUARTILE.INC 
Statistical 

Returns the quartile of a data set 
QUOTIENT 
Math Trig 

Returns the integer portion of a division 
RADIANS 
Math Trig 

Converts degrees to radians 
Math Trig 

Returns a random number between 0 and 1 

RANDARRAY  Math Trig  O365  Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values. 
Math Trig 

Returns a random number between the numbers you specify 

Statistical 

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 

RANK.AVG 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RANK.EQ 
Statistical 

Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers 
RATE 
Financial 

Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity 
RECEIVED 
Financial 

Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security 
REGISTER.ID 
Addin and Automation 

Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered 
Text 

Replaces characters within text 

Text 

Repeats text a given number of times 

Text 

Returns the rightmost characters from a text value 

Math Trig 

Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text 

Math Trig 

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits 

Math Trig 

Rounds a number down, toward zero 

Math Trig 

Rounds a number up, away from zero 

Lookup Ref 

Returns the row number of a reference 

ROWS 
Lookup Ref 

Returns the number of rows in a reference 
RRI 
Financial 
2013 
Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment 
RSQ 
Statistical 

Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient 
RTD 
Lookup Ref 

Retrieves realtime data from a program that supports COM automation 
Text 

Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive) 

SEC 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the secant of an angle 
SECH 
Math Trig 
2013 
Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle 
SECOND 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a second 
SEQUENCE  Math Trig  O365  Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4 
SERIESSUM 
Math Trig 

Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula 
Info 
2013 
Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet 

Info 
2013 
Returns the number of sheets in a reference 

SIGN 
Math Trig 

Returns the sign of a number 
SIN 
Math Trig 

Returns the sine of the given angle 
SINH 
Math Trig 

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number 
SKEW 
Statistical 

Returns the skewness of a distribution 
SKEW.P 
Statistical 
2013 
Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population; a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean 
SLN 
Financial 

Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period 
SLOPE 
Statistical 

Returns the slope of the linear regression line 
Statistical 

Returns the kth smallest value in a data set 

SORT  Lookup Ref  O365  Sorts the contents of a range or array 
SORTBY  Lookup Ref  O365  Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array 
SQL.REQUEST 
Addin and Automation 

Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming 
SQRT 
Math Trig 

Returns a positive square root 
SQRTPI 
Math Trig 

Returns the square root of (number * pi) 
STANDARDIZE 
Statistical 

Returns a normalized value 
STDEV 
Statistical 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEV.P 
Statistical 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 
STDEV.S 
Statistical 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample 
STDEVA 
Statistical 

Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STDEVP 
Statistical 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population 
STDEVPA 
Statistical 

Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
STEYX 
Statistical 

Returns the standard error of the predicted yvalue for each x in the regression 
Text 

Substitutes new text for old text in a text string 

Math Trig 

Returns a subtotal in a list or database 

Math Trig 

Adds its arguments 

Math Trig 

Adds the cells specified by a given criteria 

Math Trig 
2007 
Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria 

Math Trig 

Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components 

SUMSQ 
Math Trig 

Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments 
SUMX2MY2 
Math Trig 

Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMX2PY2 
Math Trig 

Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays 
SUMXMY2 
Math Trig 

Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays 
SWITCH  Logical  2016  Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. 
SYD 
Financial 

Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period 
Text 

Converts its arguments to text 

T.DIST 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution 
T.DIST.2T 
Statistical 

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student tdistribution 
T.DIST.RT 
Statistical 

Returns the Student's tdistribution 
T.INV 
Statistical 
2010 
Returns the tvalue of the Student's tdistribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom 
T.INV.2T 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution 
T.TEST 
Statistical 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest 
TAN 
Math Trig 

Returns the tangent of a number 
TANH 
Math Trig 

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number 
TBILLEQ 
Financial 

Returns the bondequivalent yield for a Treasury bill 
TBILLPRICE 
Financial 

Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill 
TBILLYIELD 
Financial 

Returns the yield for a Treasury bill 
TDIST 
Statistical 

Returns the Student's tdistribution 
Text 

Formats a number and converts it to text 

TEXTJOIN  Text  2019  Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. 
TIME 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of a particular time 
TIMEVALUE 
Date and time 

Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number 
TINV 
Statistical 

Returns the inverse of the Student's tdistribution 
TODAY 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of today's date 
Lookup Ref 

Returns the transpose of an array 

TREND 
Statistical 

Returns values along a linear trend 
Text 

Removes spaces from text 

Statistical 

Returns the mean of the interior of a data set 

TRUE 
Logical 

Returns the logical value TRUE 
TRUNC 
Math Trig 

Truncates a number to an integer 
TTEST 
Statistical 

Returns the probability associated with a Student's ttest 
Info 

Returns a number indicating the data type of a value 

UNICHAR 
Text 
2013 
Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value 
UNICODE 
Text 
2013 
Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text 
UNIQUE  Lookup Ref  O365  Returns a list of unique values in a list or range 
UPPER 
Text 

Converts text to uppercase 
VALUE 
Text 

Converts a text argument to a number 
VAR 
Statistical 

Estimates variance based on a sample 
VAR.P 
Statistical 

Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VAR.S 
Statistical 

Estimates variance based on a sample 
VARA 
Statistical 

Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values 
VARP 
Statistical 

Calculates variance based on the entire population 
VARPA 
Statistical 

Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
VDB 
Financial 

Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method 
Lookup Ref 

Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell 

WEBSERVICE 
Web 
2013 
Returns data from a web service. 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a day of the week 

Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year 

WEIBULL 
Statistical 

Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values 
WEIBULL.DIST 
Statistical 

Returns the Weibull distribution 
Date and time 

Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays 

Date and time 
2010 
Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days 

XIRR 
Financial 

Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XLOOKUP  Lookup Ref  O365  Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn't exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match. 
XMATCH  Lookup Ref  O365  Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells. 
XNPV 
Financial 

Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic 
XOR 
Logical 
2013 
Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments 
Date and time 

Converts a serial number to a year 

YEARFRAC 
Date and time 

Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date 
YIELD 
Financial 

Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest 
YIELDDISC 
Financial 

Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill 
YIELDMAT 
Financial 

Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity 
Z.TEST 
Statistical 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
ZTEST 
Statistical 

Returns the onetailed probabilityvalue of a ztest 
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Last updated: April 15, 2021 4:10 PM
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